# Benjamin Franklin's Magic Square

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Benjamin Franklin, an 18th-century American printer, politician, diplomat, scientist, inventor, etc., etc., enjoyed creating magic squares in his free time.

 52 61 4 13 20 29 36 45 14 3 62 51 46 35 30 19 53 60 5 12 21 28 37 44 11 6 59 54 43 38 27 22 55 58 7 10 23 26 39 42 9 8 57 56 41 40 25 24 50 63 2 15 18 31 34 47 16 1 64 49 48 33 32 17
In Franklin's autobiography, he mentions that in his youth he had created an 8×8 semi-magic square with a magic sum of 260, which also had the properties that each half-row sums to 130, and that each "bent row", as Franklin described it, summed to 260. An example "bent row" is illustrated in red in the magic square on the right.

Later on in his life, Franklin created a 16×16 semi-magic square with similar properties; in other words, each row or column sums to the magic sum, 2056, each half-row sums to half of 2056, and each "bent row" sums to 2056. In addition, the numbers in any 4×4 square drawn within the magic square sum to 2056. Here is the square that Franklin created:
 200 217 232 249 8 25 40 57 72 89 104 121 136 153 168 185 58 39 26 7 250 231 218 199 186 167 154 135 122 103 90 71 198 219 230 251 6 27 38 59 70 91 102 123 134 155 166 187 60 37 28 5 252 229 220 197 188 165 156 133 124 101 92 69 201 216 233 238 9 24 41 56 73 88 105 120 137 152 169 184 55 42 23 10 247 234 215 202 183 170 151 138 119 106 87 74 203 214 235 246 11 22 43 54 75 86 107 118 139 150 171 182 53 44 21 12 245 236 213 204 181 172 149 140 117 108 85 76 205 212 237 244 13 20 45 52 77 84 109 116 141 148 173 180 51 46 19 14 243 238 211 206 179 174 147 142 115 110 83 78 207 210 239 242 15 18 47 50 79 82 111 114 143 146 175 178 49 48 17 16 241 240 209 208 177 176 145 144 113 112 81 80 196 221 228 253 4 29 36 61 68 93 100 125 132 157 164 189 62 35 30 3 254 227 222 195 190 163 158 131 126 99 94 67 194 223 226 255 2 31 34 63 66 95 98 127 130 159 162 191 64 33 32 1 256 225 224 193 192 161 160 129 128 97 96 65

You may also be interested in Euler's Knight's Tour Magic Square.

Sources used (see bibliography page for titles corresponding to numbers): 33.