View a note on these timelines.

- 600 B.C.
- Thales introduces deductive geometry. It was developed over the years by Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, and others.
- 540 B.C.
- Pythagoras does geometrical work.
- 450 B.C.
- Zeno of Elea (489 B.C. - 430? B.C.) formulates Zeno's paradox.
- 380 B.C.
- Plato, whose ideas were influenced by the Pythagoreans, is writing philosophy.
- 340 B.C.
- Aristotle is writing philosophy.
- 300 B.C.
- Euclid compiles, organizes and systematizes geometric ideas which had been discovered and proven into thirteen books, called Elements.
- 240 B.C.
- Eratosthenes determines that the Earth is spherical and computes its diameter.
- 225 B.C.
- Archimedes (287 B.C.–212 B.C.) does work on circles, spheres, areas, infinite series, and other things.
- 225 B.C.
- Appolonius works on conic sections.

You can view a graphical timeline of famous mathematicians. A text version is also available.

For developments after 200 B.C. or so, see Greco-Roman mathematical history.

The main number system used by the Greeks during this period was the Attic system.

You may also be interested in interesting facts on ancient Greek science and philosophy at our sister site, All Fun and Games.