[Math Lair] Recreational Logic

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Recreational logic refers to puzzles, games, and other recreations involving logical deduction or inference. Recreational logic has a long history; perhaps modern recreational logic dates back to the nineteenth century, when Charles Dodgson (better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll) wrote Symbolic Logic and The Game of Logic, and well-known puzzle composers Sam Loyd and H. E. Dudeney included logic puzzles among the many puzzles they composed. However, there are several logical puzzles that are older; for example, Alcuin, a scholar at Charlemagne's court, composed several river crossing problems in the eighth century. There are many types of recreational logic puzzles; here are several types: